There are over 80 million lawsuits filed every year in the United States. Landlords and real estate investors are especially susceptible to liability. Are you a target? Are your assets easy to locate? Is your real estate titled in your name?
You wouldn't walk around with a financial statement taped to your forehead would you? So why would you have your most valuable assets exposed to public scrutiny? Anyone can go down to the county courthouse or recorder's office and look up the owner of any property. Real estate records are now computerized, so all of your real estate holdings can be located at the touch of a button!
Any mortgages on your property will be recorded as well. Most recorded mortgages will state the amount of the original principal balance and the date the mortgage payments began. All one has to do is figure out the balance of your mortgage and subtract that amount from the market value of your house. Bingo! Now they know how much equity you have and hence whether suing you is worthwhile.
If a tenant or creditor is contemplating suing you, he will make an appointment with a lawyer. Unless he can afford an attorney by the hour ($150 and up), he will likely seek a “contingency-fee” lawyer. A contingency-fee lawyer does not charge by the hour; he charges a percentage of whatever he collects. Most contingency-fee lawyers will not take a case unless there is something upon which to collect. If you have no real estate in your name, then finding out your ownership interest will not be easy for a typical lawyer. It's not that lawyers are lazy. It's simply a matter of allocation of resources; lawyers focus on cases they can win and collect. If they don't find any assets in your name (and there is no other apparent “deep pocket”), they probably won't take the case. As you can see, appearing “broke” is the best lawsuit-repellent money can buy!
There is another problem with owning real estate in your own name. If a judgment is obtained against you and filed in any county in which you own real estate, all real estate in that county will have a lien attached to it. You cannot sell or refinance any property in that county, since no title insurance company will guarantee a clean title. You're stuck until you pay off the lien.
Some people use a corporation or limited liability company to hold title to their real estate. While these entities will protect you, they will not protect your property. If you own all of your properties in one corporation, a judgment against the corporation will create a lien on all property owned by the corporation. Furthermore, the directors and officers of a corporation are public record, so a corporation will not hide your ownership.
The solution for holding title to real estate is a land trust. A land trust is a revocable, living trust used to title ownership of real estate. Title to the property is held in the name of a trustee, who is forbidden to reveal the beneficial owner. The beneficial owner or “beneficiary” can be an individual, corporation or other entity for further protection. Land trusts were first used in Illinois, hence the nickname, “Illinois Land Trust.” In nine states (AL, FL, GA, HI, IL, IN, ND and VA), land trusts are specifically recognized by statute. In most other states the validity of land trusts are supported by common law and general trust principles (land trusts are not recognized in TN & LA).
A land trust, if properly setup and implemented, will hide your name from the public records. No one will know who owns the property but you, your attorney and the trustee. If a judgment is entered against you, a lien will not automatically attach to the property, since title is not in your name.
A transfer of realty into a land trust virtually no income tax consequences. A land trust is considered a revocable “grantor” trust under the Internal Revenue Code, so it does not require a separate tax identification number or income tax return. Thus, you continue report the property for income tax purposes as though you still own it. Furthermore, a transfer of property into a land trust will not usually trigger the “due on sale” clause of your mortgage.
A land trust will allow you to assume an FHA or VA loan without recourse. Anyone can assume an old FHA or VA loan without qualifying, but few investors realize that such an assumption is with recourse. If the investor sells the property and the buyer assumes then defaults on the loan, the investor (and anyone else who previously assumed the loan) may be held liable. If a land trust is established to take title to the property and assume the loan, there is no recourse against the beneficiary. Furthermore, the loan will not appear on the beneficiary's credit report as a liability. So What are your waiting for?
Get that Property Out of Your Name!
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